Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Çocuk Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Anabilim Dalı, Çocuk Endokrinolojisi Bilim Dalı, İzmir, Türkiye**
Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Çocuk Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Anabilim Dalı, İzmir, Türkiye
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and clinical characteristics of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among children diagnosed with Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
Materials and Methods: This study included 282 pediatric cases diagnosed with T1DM between January 1999 and June 2014. Patients were divided into three groups according to age at onset (0.5 to 5.99 years, 6.0 to 10.99 years, and 11.0 to 18.0 years) and date of onset (January 1999-December 2003, January 2004-December 2008, and January 2009-June 2014). Date and age of diagnosis, seasons of diagnosis, gender, symptoms at admission, and laboratory findings were analyzed and compared in these groups.
Results: Of all the patients diagnosed with T1DM, 122 (43.2%) presented with DKA. In terms of the severity of DKA, 45.1% were mild, 32.8% moderate, and 22.1% severe. The frequency of DKA was found to increase over the years (36.4% between January 1999-December 2003, 41.7% between January 2004-December 2008, 46.5% between January 2009-June 2014). The symptom duration was significantly lower and DKA frequency was higher in ≤5 year-old patients (p<0.001, p<0.004, respectively). The most prevalent symptoms were polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss. The patients were diagnosed mostly (61.5%) in autumn and winter.
Conclusion: This study showed that the frequency of DKA among children with newly diagnosed T1DM in our country is still high. This indicates a persistent need to increase awareness of the symptoms of diabetes.